By cause 

 Traumatic fracture - This is a fracture due to sustained trauma. e.g.- Fractures caused by a fall, road traffic accident, fight etc.

Pathological fracture - A fracture through a bone which has been made weak by some underlying disease is called pathological fracture. e.g.- a fracture through a bone weakened by metastasis. Osteoporosis is the most common cause of pathological fracture.





In orthopedic medicine, fractures are classified in various ways. Historically they are named after the doctor who first described the fracture conditions. However, there are more systematic classifications in place currently.

All fractures can be broadly described as:

·         Closed (simple) fractures: are those in which the skin is intact

·         Open (compound) fractures: involve wounds that communicate with the fracture, or where fracture hematoma is exposed, and may thus expose bone to contamination. Open injuries carry a higher risk of infection.

Other considerations in fracture care are displacement (fracture gap) and angulation. If angulation or displacement is large, reduction(manipulation) of the bone may be required and, in adults, frequently requires surgical care. These injuries may take longer to heal than injuries without displacement or angulation.

·         Compression fractures: usually occurs in the vertebrae, for example when the front portion of a vertebra in the spine collapses due toosteoporosis (a medical condition which causes bones to become brittle and susceptible to fracture, with or without trauma).

Other types of fracture are:

·         Complete fracture: A fracture in which bone fragments separate completely.

·         Incomplete fracture: A fracture in which the bone fragments are still partially joined. In such cases, there is a crack in the osseous tissue that does not completely traverse the width of the bone.[4]

·         Linear fracture: A fracture that is parallel to the bone's long axis.

·         Transverse fracture: A fracture that is at a right angle to the bone's long axis.

·         Oblique fracture: A fracture that is diagonal to a bone's long axis.

·         Spiral fracture: A fracture where at least one part of the bone has been twisted.

·         Comminuted fracture: A fracture in which the bone has broken into several pieces.

·         Impacted fracture: A fracture caused when bone fragments are driven into each other.

·         Avulsion fracture: A fracture where a fragment of bone is separated from the main mass.


Anatomical location :

An anatomical classification may begin with specifying the involved body part, such as the head or arm, followed with more specific localization. Fractures that have additional definition criteria than merely localization can often be classified as subtypes of fractures that merely are, such as a Holstein-Lewis fracture being a subtype of a humerus fracture. However, most typical examples in an orthopedic classification given in previous section cannot appropriately be classified into any specific part of an anatomical classification, as they may apply to multiple anatomical fracture sites.




·         Skull fracture

·         Basilar skull fracture

·         Blowout fracture - a fracture of the walls or floor of the orbit

·         Mandibular fracture

·         Nasal fracture

·         Le Fort fracture of skull - facial fractures involving the maxillary bone and surrounding structures in a usually bilateral and either horizontal, pyramidal or transverse way.

·         Spinal fracture

·         Cervical fracture

·         Fracture of C1, including Jefferson fracture

·         Fracture of C2, including Hangman's fracture

·         Flexion teardrop fracture - a fracture of the anteroinferior aspect of a cervical vertebral

·         Clay-shoveler fracture - fracture through the spinous process of a vertebra occurring at any of the lower cervical or upper thoracic vertebrae

·         Burst fracture - in which a vertebra breaks from a high-energy axial load

·         Compression fracture - a collapse of a vertebra, often in the form of wedge fractures due to larger compression anteriorly.

·         Chance fracture - compression injury to the anterior portion of a vertebral body with concomitant distraction injury to posterior elements

·         Holdsworth fracture - an unstable fracture dislocation of the thoracolumbar junction of the spine

·         Rib fracture

·         Sternal fracture

·         Shoulder fracture

·         Clavicle fracture

·         Scapular fracture

·         Arm fracture

·         Humerus fracture (fracture of upper arm)

·         Supracondylar fracture

·         Holstein-Lewis fracture - a fracture of the distal third of the humerus resulting in entrapment of the radial nerve.

·         Forearm fracture

·         Ulnar fracture

·         Monteggia fracture - a fracture of the proximal third of the ulna with the dislocation of the head of the radius

·         Hume fracture - a fracture of the olecranon with an associated anterior dislocation of the radial head

·         Radius fracture

·         Essex-Lopresti fracture - a fracture of the radial head with concomitant dislocation of the distal radio-ulnar joint with disruption of the interosseous membrane.

·         Distal radius fracture

·         Galeazzi fracture - a fracture of the radius with dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint

·         Colles' fracture - a distal fracture of the radius with dorsal (posterior) displacement of the wrist and hand

·         Smith's fracture - a distal fracture of the radius with volar (ventral) displacement of the wrist and hand

·         Barton's fracture - an intra-articular fracture of the distal radius with dislocation of the radiocarpal joint.

·         Hand fracture

·         Scaphoid fracture

·         Rolando fracture - a comminuted intra-articular fracture through the base of the first metacarpal bone

·         Bennett's fracture - a fracture of the base of the first metacarpal bone which extends into the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint.

·         Boxer's fracture - a fracture at the neck of a metacarpal

·         Pelvic fracture

·         Fracture of the hip bone

·         Duverney fracture - an isolated pelvic fracture involving only the iliac wing.

·         Femoral fracture

·         Hip fracture (anatomically a fracture of the femur bone and not the hip bone)

·         Patella fracture

·         Crus fracture

·         Tibia fracture

·         Bumper fracture - a fracture of the lateral tibial plateau caused by a forced valgus applied to the knee

·         Segond fracture - an avulsion fracture of the lateral tibial condyle

·         Gosselin fracture - a fractures of the tibial plafond into anterior and posterior fragments

·         Toddler's fracture - an undisplaced and spiral fracture of the distal third to distal half of the tibia

·         Fibular fracture

·         Maisonneuve fracture - a spiral fracture of the proximal third of the fibula associated with a tear of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis and the interosseous membrane.

·         Le Fort fracture of ankle - a vertical fracture of the antero-medial part of the distal fibula with avulsion of the anterior tibiofibular ligament.[9]

·         Bosworth fracture - a fracture with an associated fixed posterior dislocation of the proximal fibular fragment which becomes trapped behind the posterior tibial tubercle. The injury is caused by severe external rotation of the ankle.[10]

·         Combined tibia and fibula fracture

·         Trimalleolar fracture - involving the lateral malleolusmedial malleolus and the distal posterior aspect of the tibia

·         Bimalleolar fracture - involving the lateral malleolus and the medial malleolus.

·         Pott's fracture

·         Foot fracture

·         Lisfranc fracture - in which one or all of the metatarsals are displaced from the tarsus[11]

·         Jones fracture - a fracture of the proximal end of the fifth metatarsal

·         March fracture - a fracture of the distal third of one of the metatarsals occurring because of recurrent stress

·         Calcaneal fracture